Why is Mars red (red)? Have you ever thought why this planet, with which we plan to settle in future, looks red instead of a more earthy color?
Mars is a planet where we see red color as the iron on its surface oxidizes and rust. I tried to explain why we see the red color in order below:
Let’s start with iron first. Why is there iron on the planet? A big star from our sun, which caused the formation of our solar system, consumes the hydrogen in its center during its death, then creates helium and heavier elements in turn, and then starts consuming them, and the last iron flies around, bringing its own end (why is the subject of a separate article that produced the last iron element) .
- as the magma layers of these planets formed subsequently absorbed over time; The different minerals in them crystallize at different times. usually the first crystallized minerals are minerals rich in magnesium and iron. these minerals sink to the bottom because they are more dense than magma.
- then how did this iron come to the surface of the planet? Although there is no clarity in this regard; According to one theory, the volcanic eruptions seen all over the planet in the past caused iron to surface and spread in all directions.
Now let’s look at how the oxygen atom in iron oxide, the cause of rust, formed in mars. we will go back a little bit for that. According to the maven spacecraft, 4 billion years ago there were oceans on the mars surface and a thick layer of atmosphere on it. then this layer of atmosphere has been greatly thinned and continues to thin today (around 100 grams per second).
So why is he losing his atmosphere? Unfortunately there is no magnetic field on this planet that cannot spray radiation caused by solar winds.
- why is there no magnetic field although there is enough iron in it? First of all, the presence of iron is not enough to create the magnetic field, it must be said. For the formation of the magnetic field, the movement of the hot solid core in the nucleus and the liquid core reversing around it is also required. rotating in this way creates a magnetic field. Mars is a small planet compared to the world. for this reason, the mantle layer in it cooled down quickly. This prevented the formation of a magnetic field on the planet, as it did not form a hot rotating layer in the nucleus. Another theory is that the planet does not have a large satellite. In addition, another theory is that 4 billion years ago, a large astroid hit the planet and melted its outer layers, accelerated its freezing by reaching the inner core and freezing it and stopping the core from slowing down.
For these reasons, the absence of the magnetic field cannot block the solar winds and these harmful rays damage the atmosphere and make it thinner.
- Due to the thinning atmosphere layer over time, the pressure applied to the surface of the planet decreases and the elements on its surface become open to the outside, interacting with or scattering particles from the solar winds.
- besides, the oceans on the planet evaporate both due to the lack of atmosphere and due to the lack of pressure on its surface, and because of the less gravity of the planet (lighter and smaller than the earth). From the oceans, only frozen water in regions and poles that are relatively sheltered relative to the sun remains.
- These evaporated water molecules escaping into space encounter charged particles carried by the solar wind at a certain height from the ground. these charged particles break down water molecules through ionizing radiation.
- The released hydrogen atoms escape into space, while the heavier oxygen atoms return to the surface. Note that oxygen is not at the molecular level, but at the atomic level. the oxygen molecule breaks down and remains atomic.
Returning to our initial question, these oxygen atoms come to the surface with volcanic effects and combine with the iron element covered on rocks or rocks to form iron oxide and thus the rust we know.
Finally, high-speed dust storms caused by the absence of atmospheres on the planet carry this red dust on the surface, and the planet looks red, both when looking at the sky from its surface and from our earth.
That’s why it’s called the red planet. The name Mars is probably because the Romans remind the planet the name of the god of war Mars because it reminds of blood.